History of measuring systems

Measuring systems have always been of interest to the entire world since ancient times. Systems like Transversals were used at a time when finely graduated instruments were difficult to make. They were found on instruments starting in the early 14th century, but the inventor is unknown. Tycho Brahe used them and did much to popularize the technique. The technique began to die out once verniers became common in the late 18th century – over a century after Pierre Vernier introduced the technique.
In the interim between transversals and the vernier scale, the nonius system, developed by Pedro Nunes, was used. However, it was never in common use.

A vernier scale is a device that lets the user measure more precisely than could be done unaided when reading a uniformly divided straight or circular measurement scale. It is a scale that indicates where the measurement lies in between two of the marks on the main scale. Verniers are common on sextants used in navigation, scientific instruments used to conduct experiments, machinists’ measuring tools (all sorts, but especially calipers and micrometers) used to work materials to fine tolerances, on theodolites used in surveying, and in absolute encoders to measure linear or rotational displacements.
Calipers without a vernier scale originated in ancient China as early as the Qin dynasty (AD 9).The secondary scale, which contributed extra precision, was invented in 1631 by French mathematician Pierre Vernier (1580–1637). Its use was described in detail in English in Navigatio Britannica (1750) by mathematician and historian John Barrow. While calipers are the most typical use of Vernier calliper today, they were originally developed for angle-measuring instruments such as astronomical quadrants.

Then came the micrometers. A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers. Micrometers are usually, but not always, in the form of calipers (opposing ends joined by a frame), which is why micrometer caliper is another common name.